Parathyroid hormone raises serum calcium levels directly, by increasing the rate of osteoclastic reabsorption and promoting breakdown of the bone matrix, and indirectly, by increasing the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium ions and inhibiting the reabsorption of phosphate ions from the glomerular filtrate, and finally, by promoting the absorption of calcium from the small intestine.
Parathyroid hormone is the most important regulator of blood calcium levels. Chief cells are the most abundant cells in the parathyroid gland and are responsible for the secretion of parathyroid hormone. Antibodies to parathyroid hormone together with antibodies to thyroglobulin are useful in studies to differentiate parathyroid-derived lesions from thyroid-derived lesions.
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