Heart valve disease affects nearly 5 million Americans, a figure that is expected to double in the next 25 years. The most advanced of these cases require heart valve surgery. Prosthetic heart valves are designed to restore function to a damaged heart valve and ultimately prevent heart failure. Textiles are an important component of heart valve replacement devices, as they help promote tissue ingrowth, prevent paravalvular leakage and enable a low-profile design for confinement (a crucial requirement for transcatheter valve replacement devices). Heart valves will continue to evolve as research unlocks the exciting potential of implantable materials and their ability to allow the body to repair itself.