Polarization in Piezoceramic Materials

One can think of a piezoceramic as a rock which generates electrical current if squeezed and which moves if driven by an electrical current. For these wonderful properties to occur electrodes must be connected to the piezoceramic and the piezoceramic must be polarized. Electrodes are metal connections typically covering opposite surfaces of the device. Polarization is a vector quantity (i.e. having magnitude and direction) imparted to the piezoceramic during the manufacturing process.